Republic of Poland

Opus 15: almost 4 million PLN for UPWr

December 13, 2018

Within Opus 15, Beata Łabaz PhD hab., from the Institute of Soil Science and Environmental Protection will research chernozem soils in Poland in the context of climate change and the influence of human settlement and activity form the beginning of the Neolithic. – The aim of the research is to verify the hypothesis about common origins of chernozems and black soils in Poland, key influence of the Holocene climate change and the major change in the way humans utilized land in the Neolith (and changes in land use and vegetation cover) on the behaviour of chernozems in Polish climate conditions and their transformation into black soils or brown forest podzolic soils – explains the scientist from the Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology who will conduct her research starting from the north-west of Poland (stronger Atlantic climate influences) to the south-east (continental climate influences) in all major areas of loess/silty chernozem soils.

fot. archiwum prywatne

Her research will apply the method of multi-pit opencast slope catenas and will be multidisciplinary – combining soil science methods (including comparative macro- and micromorphological analysis, as well as the analysis of profiles/origins and age of organic compounds and secondary carbonates) with geochemical, magnetometric, sedimentological, mineralogical, malacological and archeological methods.

Professor Krzysztof Marycz from the Department of Experimental Biology, together with a team consisting of molecular biologists, vets, chemists, immunologists and histologists will be the first scientist in the world to try and describe the influence of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) on the functioning, fattening and inflammation of the liver. These phenomena are also characteristic of human metabolic syndrome, which is why the results of his research may contribute to the creation of an effective and innovative method of curing this illness.

fot. Tomasz Lewandowski

The 20th century is regarded as the beginning of the plague of diseases connected with insulin resistance and pathological obesity, which are known under the common name of the metabolic syndrome. Our initial research clearly shows that the liver may play a key role in the development of the EMS and IO – explains professor Marycz whose team has great experience in researching the EMS. – The project will pass through several stages and will supply us not only with knowledge on mechanisms of the IO development on the molecular level in horses with EMS but will also allow us to determine a compound of the greatest therapeutic potential to increase tissue sensitivity to insulin.

Professor Krzysztof Sośnica is going to position global geodesic parameters with the use of the Galileo satellite system. This is the only non-military navigation system, currently being built by the European Union and the European Space Agency and financed partly by Poland. Galileo, which consists of 22 satellites orbiting the Earth, reached initial operational capacity in December 2016 and is supposed to achieve the full one in 2020.

fot. Miłosz Poloch

- The aim of my project is to use the Galileo satellite system to determine global geodesic parameters, such as: parameters of Earth’s rotation (geographical pole coordinates and changeability of day length), coordinates of Earth’s mass’s centre of gravity, temporal changes in Earth’s flattening, coordinates of multi-GNSS stations and the scale of global reference points. Attempts at positioning some of them with the use of other systems – GPS and GLONASS have, so far, been ineffective due to orbital draconitic errors. The Galileo system will make it possible thanks to the integration of two observation techniques: laser and microwave – explains the scientist from the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics.

Jarosław Waroszewski PhD will use the grant from the National Science Centre to examine soil erosion and development in the loess landscape of the Trzebnickie Hills.

fot. Urszula Markowska

- The project involves using innovative isotope methods (10Be, 239+240Pu) as well as OSL dating. Atmospheric beryllium supplies information on the whole period of soil evolution and allows us to determine the volume of the erosion in longer time scale. Knowing the beryllium content in a sample, we can also determine the age of a material. On the other hand, 239+240Pu refers to the last 50-60 years, enabling us to research cotemporary erosion. Moreover, the application of plutonium isotopes enables us to determine the dynamics and diverse intensity of erosion processes. Supplementing the data with luminescence dating makes it possible to determine precise age of eroded materials and the formation of diluvial materials. This way we can reconstruct the history of erosion phenomena and determine the beginning of prehistoric farming activity in a given area and also the size of the past farming areas – says Jarosław Waroszewski from the Institute of Soil Science and Environmental Potection.

The research grant has also been obtained by professor Aneta Wojdyło from the Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plan Nutraceutical Technology who is going to work on the leaves of fruit trees – cherry, black cherry, plum, apricot, peach, pear, quince and apple trees.

fot. Tomasz Lewandowski

- We are observing a development of many diseases of proinflammatory character, an increase in diabetes cases regardless of age and a growing number of neurodegenerative illnesses which has already reached the epidemic level and achieved a status of a global problem of the 21st century. The most important strategy in prevention and therapy of these conditions is conscious approach to diet and a healthy lifestyle. So far, diet has been balanced mainly with the use of bioactive compounds of fruit, vegetables and herbs while, at the same time, there has been a search for new sources. I want to use leaves and come up with a model drink of pre-programmed health properties aiming at prevention and therapy of 21st century conditions and diseases – explains professor Wojdyło.